The table above shows an example of the first anchor standard for literacy, which requires students to read a text and comprehend it at a literal level. Students are to make inferences and back up those inferences with evidence. Students build their reading comprehension and academic writing skills over time to prepare them for essay writing in college. As you can see, in early elementary, students focus on factual information directly stated in a text, which prepares them to make inferences and cite evidence in upper elementary and beyond. Students gradually develop critical thinking skills in middle and high school.
Literal Comprehension Skills
The foundation to reading comprehension is literal comprehension, which means that students need to pull key details out of literature and informational texts. This means that when students approach a text, they need to know which questions to ask, such as who, what, when, where, why, and how. An example of literal comprehension is identifying the main character of a story. If students cannot answer questions like this when reading developmentally appropriate reading material, they need to monitor themselves and reread to ensure their OWN factual understanding. Without literal comprehension skills, students cannot grow as readers and develop inferential and critical thinking abilities necessary to thrive in the real world.
Inferential Comprehension Skills
Students use their literal comprehension skills to make inferences, also known as “reading between the lines.” Inferential thinking requires students to connect clues from fiction and nonfiction texts to their background knowledge to make educated guesses about people, events, and main ideas. For example, a student may have to infer HOW and WHY the main character changed throughout a story without directly being told this information by the author. Before the CCSS, teachers focused predominantly on making inferences within literature rather than informational text. This gap presents problems once students go to college and begin their careers, since most adults grapple with nonfiction material daily. The CCSS requires students to be exposed to fiction and nonfiction text equally to build their background knowledge and make inferences about the world around them.
Critical Reading Skills
Finally, the ultimate goal of reading comprehension is for students to develop their abilities to think critically about complex texts. But how is critical reading different from making inferences? Critical reading requires students to not only read between the lines but beyond them, making global connections. Students not only understand the texts they are reading but actively engage with them. They should be asking themselves, “why does this matter in the real world?”. For example, students with strong critical thinking skills will ask themselves how the main character changed in the story AND why that change was IMPORTANT to the character’s development and how it connects to the story’s THEME. Furthermore, the students will ask themselves what they can learn from this story, based on the lesson that the character learned from this significant change. This way, students who graduate high school are prepared to comprehend complex reading material and use their knowledge and skills to become informed global citizens.